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How does increasing protein supply or glucogenic nutrients modify mammary metabolism in lactating dairy cows?

Abstract : In lactating dairy cows, yields of milk lactose and protein increase in response to increasing supply of intestinal protein or glucogenic nutrients (GN: ruminal infusion of propionic acid or post-ruminal infusion of glucose), but to a different extent. What are the common and the different changes in mammary metabolism explaining that both type of nutrients (protein or GN) increased both yields of protein and lactose? To answer this question a meta-analysis on mammary uptake data was performed. To analyse intra mammary metabolism and to estimate the requirement and supply of ATP to support the increases in milk synthesis, a modelling approach was performed on one study. Increased protein yield was associated with an increase in mammary net uptake of AA from group I (His, Met, Phe+Tyr), in response to extra protein or extra GN. However, this increased uptake was achieved differently. In response to protein supply, it was linked to an increase in mammary arteriovenous differences whereas in response to GN, it was linked an increase (tendency) in mammary plasma flow. In response to increasing protein supply, the mammary uptake of essential AA from group II (Ile, Lys, Leu and Val) as well as their ratio of mammary uptake to milk output (>1) also increased. This brought extra carbon skeletons and nitrogen for mammary synthesis of other components as non essential AA (NEAA), whereas the mammary uptake of two NEAA, Ala and Glu decreased. By contrast, NEAA uptakes (Ala and Glu) increased in response to GN supply (quadratic effect). Milk fatty acid synthesis was only increased in response to increasing protein supply, supported by an increase in b-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) uptake. If lactose yield increased in parallel to milk protein yield both in response to protein or GN supply, glucose uptake did not follow lactose yield. Mammary glucose partition between lactose and oxidative pathways seemed a key mechanism to explain the increased lactose yield, in particular in response to GN supply. The increased protein synthesis was the only synthesis that required a substantial increase in ATP production, based on the modelling approach. The extra ATP required could be supplied by the catabolism of BHBA and group II AA in response to protein or the catabolism of extra glucose and lactate in response to GN supply. This meta-analysis confirms that the increase in uptake of AA from group I is a common mechanism to support an increase in milk protein yield. It also confirms that the regulation of the partition of their precursors (acetate, glucose, BHBA, group II AA and NEAA) towards milk components synthesis or oxidation is probably one of the key factors in the regulation of milk volume and composition.
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Contributor : Céline Martel <>
Submitted on : Friday, September 7, 2012 - 3:44:42 PM
Last modification on : Thursday, December 10, 2020 - 4:08:05 PM


  • HAL Id : hal-00729529, version 1


S. Lemosquet, Jocelyne Guinard-Flament, G. Raggio, C. Hurtaud, Jaap van Milgen, et al.. How does increasing protein supply or glucogenic nutrients modify mammary metabolism in lactating dairy cows?. 3. EAAP International Symposium on Energy and Protein Metabolism and Nutrition, Sep 2010, Parme (IT), Italy. ⟨hal-00729529⟩



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