Transcriptome profiling of the feeding-to-fasting transition in chicken liver.

Abstract : BACKGROUND: Starvation triggers a complex array of adaptative metabolic responses including energy-metabolic responses, a process which must imply tissue specific alterations in gene expression and in which the liver plays a central role. The present study aimed to describe the evolution of global gene expression profiles in liver of 4-week-old male chickens during a 48 h fasting period using a chicken 20 K oligoarray. RESULTS: A large number of genes were modulated by fasting (3532 genes with a pvalue corrected by Benjamini-Hochberg < 0.01); 2062 showed an amplitude of variation higher than +/- 40% among those, 1162 presented an human ortholog, allowing to collect functional information. Notably more genes were down-regulated than up-regulated, whatever the duration of fasting (16 h or 48 h). The number of genes differentially expressed after 48 h of fasting was 3.5-fold higher than after 16 h of fasting. Four clusters of co-expressed genes were identified by a hierarchical cluster analysis. Gene Ontology, KEGG and Ingenuity databases were then used to identify the metabolic processes associated to each cluster. After 16 h of fasting, genes involved in ketogenesis, gluconeogenesis and mitochondrial or peroxisomal fatty acid beta-oxidation, were up-regulated (cluster-1) whereas genes involved in fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis were down-regulated (cluster-2). For all genes tested, the microarray data was confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR. Most genes were altered by fasting as already reported in mammals. A notable exception was the HMG-CoA synthase 1 gene, which was up-regulated following 16 and 48 h of fasting while the other genes involved in cholesterol metabolism were down-regulated as reported in mammalian studies. We further focused on genes not represented on the microarray and candidates for the regulation of the target genes belonging to cluster-1 and -2 and involved in lipid metabolism. Data are provided concerning PPARa, SREBP1, SREBP2, NR1H3 transcription factors and two desaturases (FADS1, FADS2). CONCLUSION: This study evidences numerous genes altered by starvation in chickens and suggests a global repression of cellular activity in response to this stressor. The central role of lipid and acetyl-CoA metabolisms and its regulation at transcriptional level are confirmed in chicken liver in response to short-term fasting. Interesting expression modulations were observed for NR1H3, FADS1 and FADS2 genes. Further studies are needed to precise their role in the complex regulatory network controlling lipid metabolism.
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BMC Genomics, BioMed Central, 2008, 9 (611), pp.611. 〈10.1186/1471-2164-9-611〉
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Colette Désert, Michel J Duclos, Pierre Blavy, Frédéric Lecerf, François Moreews, et al.. Transcriptome profiling of the feeding-to-fasting transition in chicken liver.. BMC Genomics, BioMed Central, 2008, 9 (611), pp.611. 〈10.1186/1471-2164-9-611〉. 〈hal-00729919〉

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