Regulation of mammalian desaturases by myristic acid: N-terminal myristoylation and other modulations.

Abstract : Myristic acid, the 14-carbon saturated fatty acid (C14:0), usually accounts for small amounts (0.5%-1% weight of total fatty acids) in animal tissues. Since it is a relatively rare molecule in the cells, the specific properties and functional roles of myristic acid have not been fully studied and described. Like other dietary saturated fatty acids (palmitic acid, lauric acid), this fatty acid is usually associated with negative consequences for human health. Indeed, in industrialized countries, its excessive consumption correlates with an increase in plasma cholesterol and mortality due to cardiovascular diseases. Nevertheless, one feature of myristoyl-CoA is its ability to be covalently linked to the N-terminal glycine residue of eukaryotic and viral proteins. This reaction is called N-terminal myristoylation. Through the myristoylation of hundreds of substrate proteins, myristic acid can activate many physiological pathways. This review deals with these potentially activated pathways. It focuses on the following emerging findings on the biological ability of myristic acid to regulate the activity of mammalian desaturases: (i) recent findings have described it as a regulator of the Δ4-desaturation of dihydroceramide to ceramide; (ii) studies have demonstrated that it is an activator of the Δ6-desaturation of polyunsaturated fatty acids; and (iii) myristic acid itself is a substrate of some fatty acid desaturases. This article discusses several topics, such as the myristoylation of the dihydroceramide Δ4-desaturase, the myristoylation of the NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase which is part of the whole desaturase complex, and other putative mechanisms.
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Submitted on : Friday, September 7, 2012 - 4:11:41 PM
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Vincent Rioux, Frédérique Pédrono, Philippe Legrand. Regulation of mammalian desaturases by myristic acid: N-terminal myristoylation and other modulations.. BBA - Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, Elsevier, 2011, 1811 (1), pp.1-8. ⟨10.1016/j.bbalip.2010.09.005⟩. ⟨hal-00730171⟩

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