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Comparative effects of level of dietary fiber and sanitary conditions on the growth and health of weanling pigs

Abstract : There are conflicting results on the growth and health of weanling pigs (Sus scrofa) fed high-fiber diets, and responses may differ according to sanitary conditions. This study was conducted to explore the growth, health, and fecal microbiota of weanling pigs fed either low- or high-fiber diets in 2 different sanitary conditions. Forty-eight pigs weaned at 28 d of age were individually housed in "good" (clean) or "poor" (unclean) sanitary conditions. During 2 consecutive phases, pigs were fed 2 diets containing a low (control) or high level of fiber: 121 or 169 g/kg total dietary fiber (TDF) for Phase I and 146 or 217 g/kg for Phase II, which lasted 15 and 20 d, respectively. This led to 4 experimental treatments in Phase I in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement (2 sanitary conditions × 2 diets) and 8 experimental treatments in Phase II in a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement (2 sanitary conditions × 2 diets in Phase I × 2 diets in Phase II). The poor sanitary conditions led to a reduced G:F (0.617 vs. 0.680 for poor and good sanitary conditions, respectively; P = 0.01) over the entire experimental period. The number of pigs with diarrhea in Phase I tended to be greater in the poor sanitary conditions with the high-fiber diet than the control diet (7 vs. 3 pigs, P = 0.07). Enteroccocus was prominent in feces of these diarrheic pigs. At 5 wk after weaning, compared with good sanitary conditions, the fecal microbiota of pigs housed in poor sanitary conditions was characterized by more Lactobacillus (9.24 vs. 8.34 log cfu/g, P < 0.001), more Enterobacteria (6.69 vs. 5.58 log cfu/g, P < 0.001), and less anaerobic sulfite bacteria (3.72 vs. 5.87 log cfu/g; P < 0.001). The feces of pigs in poor sanitary conditions contained more total VFA and proportionally more butyrate (9.7 vs. 5.7% for poor and good conditions, respectively, independently of dietary treatment, P < 0.001). At 5 wk after weaning, feces of pigs fed the high-fiber diet during Phase II contained less Enterococcus bacteria than pigs fed the control diet (4.06 vs. 4.56 log cfu/g; P = 0.05), and more total VFA with a decreased proportion of branched-chain fatty acids (5.0 vs. 6.1%; P = 0.006). To conclude, feeding pigs a high-fiber diet in the immediate period after weaning is probably an additional risk factor for slower BW gain, especially in poor sanitary conditions.
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Contributor : Céline Martel Connect in order to contact the contributor
Submitted on : Wednesday, July 3, 2013 - 5:48:06 PM
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Lucile Montagne, Nathalie Le Floc'H, M. Arturo-Schaan, R. Foret, Mc. Urdaci, et al.. Comparative effects of level of dietary fiber and sanitary conditions on the growth and health of weanling pigs. Journal of Animal Science, American Society of Animal Science, 2012, 90 (8), pp.2556-2569. ⟨10.2527/jas2011-4160⟩. ⟨hal-00841110⟩



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