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Incorporation of Dairy Lipids in the Diet Increased Long-Chain Omega-3 Fatty Acids Status in Post-weaning Rats

Abstract : In human nutrition, optimized the status of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) and especially docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) during growth appears to be one of the most important goal. We investigated the potential impact of a partial incorporation of dairy lipids (DL) in the diet to increase the n-3 LCPUFA content in tissues, compared to a mixture of vegetable oils. Rats were fed with vegetable oil diet or DL diet, supplemented or not supplemented with DHA, from weaning for 6 weeks. All diets provided the same quantity of 2.3% of total fatty acids of precursor α-linolenic acid. LCPUFA levels in brain, retina, liver, heart, red blood cells and epididymal adipose tissue,-6 desaturase activity and mRNA expression in liver, and plasma cholesterol were measured. Rats fed a DL diet increased their DHA content in brain and retina compared with rats fed a vegetable oil diet and reached the same level than rats directly supplemented with DHA. The status of n-3 docosapentaenoic acid increased with DL diet in heart, red blood cells and liver. The n-3 docosapentaenoic acid specifically discriminated DL diets in the heart. DL diet increased α-linolenic acid content in liver and epididymal adipose tissue, provided specific fatty acids as short-and medium-chain fatty acids and myristic acid, and increased plasma cholesterol. We hypothesized that dairy lipids may increase the n-3 LCPUFA enrichment in tissues by preserving precursor α-linolenic acid from β-mitochondrial oxidation, associated with the presence of short-and medium-chain fatty acids in DL diets. In conclusion, a partial incorporation of dairy lipids in the diet with an adequate α-linolenic acid content improved the n-3 LCPUFA status, especially DHA in brain and retina.
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Gaëtan Drouin, Daniel Catheline, Annaëlle Sinquin, Charlotte Baudry, Pascale Le Ruyet, et al.. Incorporation of Dairy Lipids in the Diet Increased Long-Chain Omega-3 Fatty Acids Status in Post-weaning Rats. Frontiers in nutrition, Frontiers media, 2018, 5, pp.42. ⟨10.3389/fnut.2018.00042⟩. ⟨hal-01798171⟩

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