Comparative effects of dietary n-3 docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), DHA and EPA on plasma lipid parameters, oxidative status and fatty acid tissue composition

Abstract : The specific and shared physiologic and metabolic effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and even more of n-3 docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) are poorly known. We investigated the physiological effects and the overall fatty acid tissue composition of a nutritional supplementation of DPA compared both to EPA and DHA in healthy adult rats. Rats (n=32) were fed with semisynthetic diets supplemented or not with 1% of total lipids as EPA, DPA or DHA in ethyl esters form from weaning for 6 weeks. Fatty acid tissue composition was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and blood assays were performed. The DPA supplementation was the only one that led to a decrease in plasma triglycerides, total cholesterol, non-high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, cholesterol esters and total cholesterol/HDL-cholesterol ratio compared to the nonsupplemented control group. The three supplemented groups had increased plasma total antioxidant status and superoxide dismutase activity. In all supplemented groups, the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid level increased in all studied tissues (liver, heart, lung, spleen, kidney, red blood cells, splenocytes, peripheral mononucleated cells) except in the brain. We showed that the DPA supplementation affected the overall fatty acid composition and increased DPA, EPA and DHA tissue contents in a similar way than with EPA. However, liver and heart DHA contents increased in DPA-fed rats at the same levels than in DHA-fed rats. Moreover, a large part of DPA seemed to be retroconverted into EPA in the liver (38.5%) and in the kidney (68.6%). In addition, the digestibility of DPA was lower than that of DHA and EPA.
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Submitted on : Monday, August 26, 2019 - 2:57:03 PM
Last modification on : Wednesday, August 28, 2019 - 1:24:34 AM

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Gaëtan Drouin, Daniel Catheline, Étienne Guillocheau, Pierre Guéret, Charlotte Baudry, et al.. Comparative effects of dietary n-3 docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), DHA and EPA on plasma lipid parameters, oxidative status and fatty acid tissue composition. The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, 2019, 63, pp.186-196. ⟨10.1016/j.jnutbio.2018.09.029⟩. ⟨hal-02271041⟩

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