A. , Risques et bénéfices pour la santé des acides gras trans apportés par les aliments -Recommandations, 2005.

N. Aldai, M. Dugan, D. C. Rolland, and J. Kramer, Survey of the fatty acid composition of Canadian beef: Backfat and longissimus lumborum muscle, Can J Anim Sci, vol.89, issue.3, pp.315-329, 2009.

N. Aldai, M. Dugan, and J. Kramer, Can the trans-18:1 and conjugated linoleic acid profiles in retail ground beef be healthier than steak?, J Food Compost Anal, vol.23, issue.4, pp.326-332, 2010.

S. Banni, Conjugated linoleic acid metabolism, Curr Opin Lipidol, vol.13, pp.261-266, 2002.

S. Banni, A. Petroni, and M. Blasevich, Detection of conjugated C16 PUFAs in rat tissues as possible partial betaoxidation products of naturally occurring conjugated linoleic acid and its metabolites, Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Biol Lipids, vol.1682, issue.1-3, pp.120-127, 2004.

S. Banni, A. Petroni, and M. Blasevich, Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) as precursors of a distinct family of PUFA, Lipid, vol.39, issue.11, pp.1143-1146, 2004.

O. Berdeaux, S. Gnädig, J. Chardigny, O. Loreau, J. Noël et al., In vitro desaturation and elongation of rumenic acid by rat liver microsomes, Lipids, vol.37, issue.11, pp.1039-1045, 2002.

H. J. Blewett, C. A. Gerdung, M. R. Ruth, S. D. Proctor, and C. J. Field, Vaccenic acid favourably alters immune function in obese JCR: LA-cp rats, Br J Nutr, vol.102, issue.04, p.526, 2009.

L. Bravo-lamas, L. Barron, J. Kramer, I. Etaio, and N. Aldai, Characterization of the fatty acid composition of lamb commercially available in northern Spain: Emphasis on the trans-18:1 and CLA content and profile, Meat Sci, vol.117, pp.108-116, 2016.

H. Cao, K. Gerhold, J. R. Mayers, M. M. Wiest, S. M. Watkins et al., Identification of a lipokine, a lipid hormone linking adipose tissue to systemic metabolism, Cell, vol.134, issue.6, pp.933-944, 2008.

I. Cimen, Z. Yildirim, and A. E. Dogan, Double bond configuration of palmitoleate is critical for atheroprotection, Mol Metab, vol.28, 2019.

L. Clément, H. Poirier, and I. Niot, Dietary trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid induces hyperinsulinemia and fatty liver in the mouse, J Lipid Res, vol.43, issue.9, pp.1400-1409, 2002.

. Codex, CODEX Alimentarius (CODEX) Guidelines on Nutrition Labeling CAC/GL 2-1985 as Last Amended, 1985.

D. Silva, M. S. Julien, P. Couture, P. Lemieux, S. Vohl et al., Associations between dairy intake and metabolic risk parameters in a healthy French-Canadian population, Appl Physiol Nutr Metab, vol.39, issue.12, pp.1323-1331, 2014.

D. Silva, M. S. Julien, P. Bilodeau, J. Barbier, O. Rudkowska et al., Trans fatty acids suppress TNFa-induced inflammatory gene expression in endothelial (HUVEC) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells, Lipids, 2017.

M. C. De-oliveira-otto, J. A. Nettleton, and R. N. Lemaitre, Biomarkers of dairy fatty acids and risk of cardiovascular disease in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, J Am Heart Assoc, vol.2, issue.4, 2013.

R. J. De-souza, A. Mente, and A. Maroleanu, Intake of saturated and trans unsaturated fatty acids and risk of all cause mortality, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes: Systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies, BMJ, vol.351, pp.1-16, 2015.

F. Destaillats, R. L. Wolff, D. Precht, and J. Molkentin, Study of individual trans-and cis-16:1 isomers in cow, goat, and ewe cheese fats by gas-liquid chromatography with emphasis on the trans-D3 isomer, Lipids, vol.35, issue.9, pp.1027-1032, 2000.

C. Druart, A. M. Neyrinck, and E. M. Dewulf, Implication of fermentable carbohydrates targeting the gut microbiota on conjugated linoleic acid production in high-fat-fed mice, Br J Nutr, vol.110, issue.6, pp.998-1011, 2013.

P. E. Duffy, S. M. Quinn, H. M. Roche, and P. Evans, Synthesis of transvaccenic acid and cis-9-trans-11-conjugated linoleic acid, Tetrahedron, vol.62, issue.20, pp.4838-4843, 2006.

. Efsa, Opinion of the Scientific Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies on a request from the Commission related to the presence of trans fatty acids in foods and the effect on human health of the consumption of trans fatty acids, EFSA J, vol.2, issue.8, pp.1-49, 2004.

. Fda, Food Labeling: Trans Fatty Acids in Nutrition Labeling, Nutrient Content Claims, and Health Claims, Fed Reg, vol.68, issue.133, pp.41433-41506, 2003.

M. Gaita, A. Marano, and A. Della-gatta, c9, t11-conjugated linoleic acid ameliorates steatosis by modulating mitochondrial uncoupling and Nrf2 pathway, J Lipid Res, vol.55, issue.5, pp.837-849, 2014.

C. Garcia, C. Duby, and D. Catheline, Synthesis of the suspected trans-11, cis-13 conjugated linoleic acid isomer in ruminant mammary tissue by FADS3-catalyzed D13-desaturation of vaccenic acid, J Dairy Sci, vol.100, issue.1, pp.783-796, 2017.

C. Garcia, E. Guillocheau, and L. Richard, Conversion of dietary trans-vaccenic acid to trans11, cis13-conjugated linoleic acid in the rat lactating mammary gland by fatty acid desaturase 3-catalyzed methyl-end D13-desaturation, Biochem Biophys Res Commun, vol.505, issue.2, pp.385-391, 2018.

S. K. Gebauer, F. Destaillats, and Z. Mouloungui, Effect of trans fatty acid isomers from ruminant sources on risk factors of cardiovascular disease: Study design and rationale, Contemp Clin Trials, vol.32, issue.4, pp.569-576, 2011.

S. K. Gebauer, F. Destaillats, F. Dionisi, R. M. Krauss, and D. J. Baer, Vaccenic acid and trans fatty acid isomers from partially hydrogenated oil both adversely affect LDL cholesterol: A double-blind, randomized controlled trial, Am J Clini Nutr, vol.102, issue.6, pp.1339-1346, 2015.

D. Gruffat, A. De-la-torre, J. Chardigny, D. Durand, O. Loreau et al., Vaccenic acid metabolism in the liver of rat, 2005.

E. Guillocheau, C. Penhoat, A. Godet, D. Catheline, P. Legrand et al., Dairy products as main dietary sources of trans-palmitoleic and trans-vaccenic acid in France, IDF-World Dairy Summit, 2018.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02177980

E. Guillocheau, C. Garcia, and G. Drouin, Retroconversion of dietary trans-vaccenic (trans-C18:1 n-7) acid to trans-palmitoleic acid (trans-C16:1 n-7): Proof of concept and quantification in both cultured rat hepatocytes and pregnant rats, J Nutr Biochem, vol.63, pp.19-26, 2019.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01884808

F. Imamura, A. M. Fretts, and M. Marklund, Fatty acid biomarkers of dairy fat consumption and incidence of type 2 diabetes: A pooled analysis of prospective cohort studies, PLoS Med, vol.15, issue.10, 2018.

M. M. Jacome-sosa, F. Borthwick, and R. Mangat, Diets enriched in trans-11 vaccenic acid alleviate ectopic lipid accumulation in a rat model of NAFLD and metabolic syndrome, J Nutr Biochem, vol.25, issue.7, pp.692-701, 2014.

A. Jaudszus, M. Foerster, C. Kroegel, I. Wolf, and G. Jahreis, Cis-9, Trans-11-CLA exerts anti-inflammatory effects in human bronchial epithelial cells and eosinophils: Comparison to Trans-10, Cis-12-CLA and to linoleic acid, Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Biol Lipids, vol.1737, issue.2-3, pp.111-118, 2005.

A. Jaudszus, M. Krokowski, and P. Möckel, Cis-9, trans-11-conjugated linoleic acid inhibits allergic sensitization and airway inflammation via a PPARg-related mechanism in mice, J Nutr, vol.138, issue.7, pp.1336-1342, 2008.

A. Jaudszus, G. Jahreis, and W. Schlörmann, Vaccenic acidmediated reduction in cytokine production is independent of c9, t11-CLA in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Biol Lipids, vol.1821, issue.10, pp.1316-1322, 2012.

J. Kraft, L. Hanske, P. Mo, J. Kramer, and G. Jahreis, The Conversion Efficiency of trans-11 and trans-12 18:1 by D9-desaturation differs in rats, J Nutr, pp.1209-1214, 2006.

J. Kraft, T. Jetton, B. Satish, and D. Gupta, Dairy-derived bioactive fatty acids improve pancreatic b-cell function, FASEB J, vol.29, issue.1_supplement, pp.608-625, 2015.

K. Kuhnt, J. Kraft, P. Moeckel, and G. Jahreis, Trans-11-18:1 is effectively D9-desaturated compared with trans-12-18:1 in humans, Br J Nutr, vol.95, issue.4, pp.752-761, 2006.

K. Kuhnt, M. Baehr, C. Rohrer, and G. Jahreis, Trans fatty acid isomers and the trans-9/trans-11 index in fat containing foods, Eur J Lipid Sci Technol, vol.113, issue.10, pp.1281-1292, 2011.

C. E. Loscher, E. Draper, O. Leavy, D. Kelleher, K. Mills et al., Conjugated linoleic acid suppresses NF-B activation and, 2014.

E. Guillocheau, OCL 2019, vol.26, p.46

, IL-12 production in dendritic cells through ERK-mediated IL-10 induction, J Immunol, vol.175, issue.8, p.10

S. Mendis, C. Cruz-hernandez, and W. Ratnayake, Fatty acid profile of Canadian dairy products with special attention to the trans-octadecenoic acid and conjugated linoleic acid isomers, J AOAC Int, vol.91, issue.4, pp.811-819, 2008.

R. Micha, I. B. King, . Lemaitre, and . Rn, Food sources of individual plasma phospholipid trans fatty acid isomers: The Cardiovascular Health Study, Am J Clin Nutr, vol.91, issue.4, pp.883-893, 2010.

S. K. Mohankumar, D. Hanke, and L. Siemens, Dietary supplementation of trans-11-vaccenic acid reduces adipocyte size but neither aggravates nor attenuates obesity-mediated metabolic abnormalities in fa/fa Zucker rats, Br J Nutr, vol.109, issue.9, pp.1628-1636, 2013.

F. Moloney, S. Toomey, and E. Noone, Antidiabetic effects of cis-9, trans-11-conjugated linoleic acid may be mediated via antiinflammatory effects in white adipose tissue, Diabetes, vol.56, issue.3, pp.574-582, 2007.

E. E. Mosley, M. K. Mcguire, J. E. Williams, and M. A. Mcguire, Cis-9, Trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid is synthesized directly from vaccenic acid in lactating women, J Nutr, vol.136, issue.9, pp.2297-2301, 2006.

Z. Mouloungui and C. L. , Chemical synthesis of monounsaturated trans fatty acids, Trans fatty acids in human nutrition. Second, pp.77-103, 2009.

. Moya-camarena, V. Sy, J. P. Heuvel, S. G. Blanchard, L. A. Leesnitzer et al., Conjugated linoleic acid is a potent naturally occurring ligand and activator of PPARa, J Lipid Res, vol.40, issue.8, pp.1426-1433, 1999.

D. Mozaffarian, H. Cao, and I. B. King, Trans-palmitoleic acid, metabolic risk factors, and new-onset diabetes in U.S. adults: A cohort study, Ann Intern Med, vol.153, issue.12, pp.790-799, 2010.

D. Mozaffarian, M. C. De-oliveira-otto, and R. N. Lemaitre, Transpalmitoleic acid, other dairy fat biomarkers, and incident diabetes: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA), Am J Clin Nutr, vol.97, issue.4, pp.854-861, 2013.

D. Mozaffarian, H. Cao, and G. S. Hotamisligil, , 2014.

E. Murru, G. Carta, and L. Cordeddu, Dietary conjugated linoleic acid-enriched cheeses influence the levels of circulating n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids in humans, Int J Mol Sci, vol.19, issue.6, p.1730, 2018.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01854609

P. J. Nestel, N. Straznicky, and N. A. Mellett, Specific plasma lipid classes and phospholipid fatty acids indicative of dairy food consumption associate with insulin sensitivity, Am J Clin Nutr, vol.99, pp.46-53, 2014.

A. Piras, G. Carta, and E. Murru, Effects of dietary CLA on n-3 HUFA score and N-acylethanolamides biosynthesis in the liver of obese Zucker rats, Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids, vol.98, pp.15-19, 2015.

I. G. Pranger, F. Muskiet, I. P. Kema, C. Singh-povel, and S. Bakker, Potential biomarkers for fat from dairy and fish and their association with cardiovascular risk factors: Cross-sectional data from the LifeLines Biobank and Cohort Study, Nutrients, vol.11, issue.5, p.1099, 2019.

D. Precht and J. Molkentin, Rapid analysis of the isomers of transoctadecenoic acid in milk fat, Int Dairy J, vol.6, issue.8-9, pp.791-809, 1996.

D. Precht and J. Molkentin, Recent trends in the fatty acid composition of German sunflower margarines, shortenings and cooking fats with emphasis on individual C16:1, C18:1, C18:2, C18:3 and C20:1 trans isomers, Nahrung, vol.16, issue.4, pp.0-6, 2000.

D. Precht and J. Molkentin, Trans unsaturated fatty acids in bovine milk fat and dairy products, Eur J Lipid Sci Technol, vol.102, issue.10, pp.635-640, 2000.

C. M. Reynolds, C. E. Loscher, A. P. Moloney, and H. M. Roche, Cis-9, trans-11-conjugated linoleic acid but not its precursor transvaccenic acid attenuate inflammatory markers in the human colonic epithelial cell line Caco-2, Br J Nutr, vol.100, issue.1, pp.13-17, 2008.

V. Rioux, F. Pédrono, and H. Blanchard, Trans-vaccenate is D13-desaturated by FADS3 in rodents, J Lipid Res, vol.54, issue.12, pp.3438-3452, 2013.

H. M. Roche, E. Noone, and C. Sewter, Serum pentadecanoic acid (15:0), a short-term marker of dairy food intake, is inversely associated with incident type 2 diabetes and its underlying disorders, Am Clin Nutr, vol.51, issue.7, pp.1532-1540, 2002.

J. E. Santora, D. L. Palmquist, and K. L. Roehrig, Trans-vaccenic acid is desaturated to conjugated linoleic acid in mice, J Nutr, vol.130, issue.2, pp.208-215, 2000.

J. Sébédio, P. Juanéda, and G. Dobson, Metabolites of conjugated isomers of linoleic acid (CLA) in the rat, Biochim Biophys Acta Lipids Lipid Metab, vol.1345, issue.1, pp.15-20, 1997.

J. Sébédio, E. Angioni, J. Chardigny, S. Grégoire, P. Juanéda et al., The effect of conjugated linoleic acid isomers on fatty acid profiles of liver and adipose tissues and their conversion to isomers of 16?2 and 18?3 conjugated fatty acids in rats, Lipids, vol.36, issue.6, pp.575-582, 2001.

N. Sehat, J. Kramer, and M. M. Mossoba, Identification of conjugated linoleic acid isomers in cheese by gas chromatography, silver ion high performance liquid chromatography and mass spectral reconstructed ion profiles. Comparison of chromatographic elution sequences, Lipids, vol.33, issue.10, pp.963-971, 1998.

J. P. Sergiel, J. Chardigny, and J. Sébédio, b-oxidation of conjugated linoleic acid isomers and linoleic acid in rats, Lipids, vol.36, issue.12, pp.1327-1329, 2001.

Q. Sun, J. Ma, H. Campos, and F. B. Hu, Plasma and erythrocyte biomarkers of dairy fat intake and risk of ischemic heart disease, 2007.

, Am J Clin Nutr, vol.86, issue.4, pp.929-937

B. L. Tremblay and I. Rudkowska, Nutrigenomic point of view on effects and mechanisms of action of ruminant trans fatty acids on insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, Nutr Rev, vol.75, issue.3, pp.214-223, 2017.

A. M. Turpeinen, M. Mutanen, and A. Aro, Immunological and metabolic effects of cis-9, trans-11-conjugated linoleic acid in subjects with birch pollen allergy, Am J Clin Nutr, vol.76, issue.3, pp.112-119, 2002.

Y. Wang, J. Lu, and M. R. Ruth, Trans-11 vaccenic acid dietary supplementation induces hypolipidemic effects in JCR: LA-cp Rats, J Nutr, vol.138, issue.11, pp.2117-2122, 2008.

Y. Wang, M. M. Jacome-sosa, and M. R. Ruth, The intestinal bioavailability of vaccenic acid and activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-a and Àg in a rodent model of dyslipidemia and the metabolic syndrome, Mol Nutr Food Res, vol.56, issue.8, pp.1234-1246, 2012.

R. L. Wolff, N. A. Combe, and F. Destaillats, Follow-up of the D4 to D16 trans-18:1 isomer profile and content in French processed foods containing partially hydrogenated vegetable oils during the period 1995-1999. Analytical and nutritional implications, Lipids, vol.35, issue.8, pp.815-825, 2000.

M. Y. Yakoob, P. Shi, and W. C. Willett, Circulating biomarkers of dairy fat and risk of incident diabetes mellitus among US men and women in two large prospective cohorts, Circulation, vol.133, issue.17, 2016.

M. Yang and M. E. Cook, Dietary conjugated linoleic acid decreased cachexia, macrophage tumor necrosis factor-a production, and modifies splenocyte cytokines production, Exp Bio Med, vol.228, issue.1, pp.51-58, 2003.

E. Guillocheau, P. Legrand, and V. Rioux, Benefits of natural dietary trans fatty acids towards inflammation, obesity and type 2 diabetes: defining the n-7 trans fatty acid family, OCL, vol.26, p.46, 2019.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02434772