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The n-3 docosapentaenoic acid (DPA): A new player in the n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid family

Abstract : The n-3 docosapentaenoic acid (n-3 DPA) is less studied n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA), compared to its counterparts eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Present in food sources in non-negligible quantities, as well as in human milk, dietary n-3 DPA is of current interest both for its ability to increase EPA and DHA tissue status and for its specific or shared biological effects. Indeed, some evidence showed that dietary n-3 DPA is a source of EPA and slightly DHA in the major metabolic organs. n-3 DPA is also the precursor of a large panel of lipid mediators (protectins, resolvins, maresins, isoprostanes) principally implicated in the pro-resolution of the inflammation with specific effects compared to the other n-3 LCPUFA. Recent results showed that n-3 DPA is implied in the improvement of cardiovascular and metabolic disease risk markers, especially plasma lipid parameters, platelet aggregation, insulin sensitivity and cellular plasticity. Moreover, n-3 DPA is the most abundant n-3 LCPUFA in the brain after DHA and it could be specifically beneficial for elderly neuroprotection, and early-life development. These results led to the development of two drugs specifically containing n-3 DPA. This review summarizes the different knowledge about n-3 DPA direct and indirect sources, availability and purification methods, focusing thereafter on the recent findings showing n-3 DPA relationship with fatty acid metabolism, lipid mediators, Finally, the n-3 DPA biological and pharmacological effects are described.
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Submitted on : Friday, October 22, 2021 - 3:03:01 PM
Last modification on : Wednesday, April 6, 2022 - 4:08:21 PM
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Gaëtan Drouin, Vincent V. Rioux, Philippe P. Legrand. The n-3 docosapentaenoic acid (DPA): A new player in the n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid family. Biochimie, Elsevier, 2019, 159, pp.36-48. ⟨10.1016/j.biochi.2019.01.022⟩. ⟨hal-02573676⟩



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