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Common bacterial blight of bean: a model of seed transmission and pathological convergence

Abstract : Background: Xanthomonas citri pv. fuscans (Xcf) and Xanthomonas phaseoli pv. phaseoli (Xpp) are the causal agents of common bacterial blight of bean (CBB), an important disease worldwide that remains difficult to control. These pathogens belong to distinct species within the Xanthomonas genus and have undergone a dynamic evolutionary history including the horizontal transfer of genes encoding factors probably involved in adaptation to and pathogenicity on common bean. Seed transmission is a key point of the CBB disease cycle, favouring both vertical transmission of the pathogen and worldwide distribution of the disease through global seed trade. Taxonomy: Kingdom: Bacteria; phylum: Proteobacteria; class: Gammaproteobacteria; order: Lysobacterales (also known as Xanthomonadales); family: Lysobacteraceae (also known as Xanthomonadaceae); genus: Xanthomonas; species: X. citri pv. fuscans and X. phaseoli pv. phaseoli (Xcf‐Xpp). Host range: The main host of Xcf‐Xpp is the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus) and members of the Vigna genus (Vigna aconitifolia, Vigna angularis, Vigna mungo, Vigna radiata, and Vigna umbellata) are also natural hosts of Xcf‐Xpp. Natural occurrence of Xcf‐Xpp has been reported for a handful of other legumes such as Calopogonium sp., Pueraria sp., pea (Pisum sativum), Lablab purpureus, Macroptilium lathyroides, and Strophostyles helvola. There are conflicting reports concerning the natural occurrence of CBB agents on tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolius) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata subsp. unguiculata). Symptoms: CBB symptoms occur on all aerial parts of beans, that is, seedlings, leaves, stems, pods, and seeds. Symptoms initially appear as water‐soaked spots evolving into necrosis on leaves, pustules on pods, and cankers on twigs. In severe infections, defoliation and wilting may occur. Distribution: CBB is distributed worldwide, meaning that it is frequently encountered in most places where bean is cultivated in the Americas, Asia, Africa, and Oceania, except for arid tropical areas. Xcf‐Xpp are regulated nonquarantine pathogens in Europe and are listed in the A2 list by the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (EPPO). Genome: The genome consists of a single circular chromosome plus one to four extrachromosomal plasmids of various sizes, for a total mean size of 5.27 Mb with 64.7% GC content and an average predicted number of 4,181 coding sequences. Disease control: Management of CBB is based on integrated approaches that comprise measures aimed at avoiding Xcf‐Xpp introduction through infected seeds, cultural practices to limit Xcf‐Xpp survival between host crops, whenever possible the use of tolerant or resistant bean genotypes, and chemical treatments, mainly restricted to copper compounds. The use of pathogen‐free seeds is essential in an effective management strategy and requires appropriate sampling, detection, and identification methods. Useful websites: https://gd.eppo.int/taxon/XANTPH, https://gd.eppo.int/taxon/XANTFF, and http://www.cost.eu/COST_Actions/ca/CA16107.
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https://hal-agrocampus-ouest.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-03228925
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Submitted on : Tuesday, May 18, 2021 - 2:57:55 PM
Last modification on : Thursday, September 16, 2021 - 2:22:02 PM

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Nicolas W. G. Chen, Mylène Ruh, Armelle Darrasse, Justine Foucher, Martial Briand, et al.. Common bacterial blight of bean: a model of seed transmission and pathological convergence. Molecular Plant Pathology, Wiley, In press, pp.Early Access. ⟨10.1111/mpp.13067⟩. ⟨hal-03228925⟩

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