La régulation naturelle des insectes ravageurs des cultures légumières et ses conséquences sur la production : quantification du service fourni et recherche de leviers pour son intensification

Abstract : Developping farming systems that use less pesticides is partly based on the intensification of ecosystem services. The main aim of this thesis was to quantify the insect pest regulation service provided by their natural enemies, both in experimental plots and in farmers fields. We worked on brassicaceous vegetables that are confronted to pest attacks on above- and belowground organs (aphids and the cabbage root fly). We assessed their harmfulness, in order to quantify the injuries and damage these pests can inflict to plants. Our results confirm that aphids are less harmful than the cabbage root fly. On flower vegetables, the latter not only leads to plant mortality but can also slow plant development.We also showed that ground dwelling predators significantly reduce the populations of both pests, leading, for the cabbage root fly, to a strong decrease in plant mortality rate. Finally, simplifying soil tillage in the spring did not favor ground dwelling predators overwintering inside the field and neither did it increase natural regulation service in the short term. However, early ground dwelling predators are fundamental and must be favored by tailored practices both inside and around the fields. The knowledge gained in the present thesis show the potential of conservation biological control for the agroecological management of insect pest populations.
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Xavier Mesmin. La régulation naturelle des insectes ravageurs des cultures légumières et ses conséquences sur la production : quantification du service fourni et recherche de leviers pour son intensification. Biologie animale. Agrocampus Ouest, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018NSARC134⟩. ⟨tel-01892160⟩

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